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Netwotk Basic

Netwotk Basic
One way to categorize the different types of computer network designs is by their scope or scale. For historical reasons, the networking industry refers to nearly every type of design as some kind of area network. Common examples of area network types are:

  • LAN - Local Area Network
  • WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
  • WAN - Wide Area Network
  • MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
  • SAN - Storage Area Network, System Area Network, Server Area Network, or sometimes Small Area Network
  • CAN - Campus Area Network, Controller Area Network, or sometimes Cluster Area Network
  • PAN - Personal Area Network
  • DAN - Desk Area Network

LAN and WAN were the original categories of area networks, while the others have gradually emerged over many years of technology evolution.

Note that these network types are a separate concept from network topologies such as bus, ring and star.

LAN - Local Area Network
A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. A networked office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room), and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. In TCP/IP networking, a LAN is often but not always implemented as a single IP subnet.

In addition to operating in a limited space, LANs are also typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization. They also tend to use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet and Token Ring.

WAN - Wide Area Network
As the term implies, a WAN spans a large physical distance. The Internet is the largest WAN, spanning the Earth.

A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A network device called a router connects LANs to a WAN. In IP networking, the router maintains both a LAN address and a WAN address.

A WAN differs from a LAN in several important ways. Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management. WANs tend to use technology like ATM, Frame Relay and X.25 for connectivity over the longer distances.
LAN, WAN and Home Networking
Residences typically employ one LAN and connect to the Internet WAN via an Internet Service Provider (ISP) using a broadband modem. The ISP provides a WAN IP address to the modem, and all of the computers on the home network use LAN (so-called private) IP addresses. All computers on the home LAN can communicate directly with each other but must go through a central gateway, typically a broadband router, to reach the ISP.

Other Types of Area Networks
While LAN and WAN are by far the most popular network types mentioned, you may also commonly see references to these others:
  • Wireless Local Area Network - a LAN based on WiFi wireless network technology
  • Metropolitan Area Network - a network spanning a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN, such as a city. A MAN is typically owned an operated by a single entity such as a government body or large corporation.
  • Campus Area Network - a network spanning multiple LANs but smaller than a MAN, such as on a university or local business campus.
  • Storage Area Network - connects servers to data storage devices through a technology like Fibre Channel.
  • System Area Network - links high-performance computers with high-speed connections in a cluster configuration. Also known as Cluster Area Network.

Network Topologies

In computer networking, topology refers to the layout of connected devices. This article introduces the standard topologies of networking.
Topology in Network Design
Think of a topology as a network's virtual shape or structure. This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the network. For example, the computers on a home LAN may be arranged in a circle in a family room, but it would be highly unlikely to find a ring topology there.

Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types:

* bus
* ring
* star
* tree
* mesh

More complex networks can be built as hybrids of two or more of the above basic topologies.

Bus Topology
Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message.

Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and don't require much cabling compared to the alternatives. 10Base-2 ("ThinNet") and 10Base-5 ("ThickNet") both were popular Ethernet cabling options many years ago for bus topologies. However, bus networks work best with a limited number of devices. If more than a few dozen computers are added to a network bus, performance problems will likely result. In addition, if the backbone cable fails, the entire network effectively becomes unusable.

Ring Topology
In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network.

To implement a ring network, one typically uses FDDI, SONET, or Token Ring technology. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses.

Star Topology
Many home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be a hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet.

Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN. (If the hub fails, however, the entire network also fails.)

Tree Topology
Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the "root" of a tree of devices. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub connection points) alone.

Mesh Topology
Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies, messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. (Recall that even in a ring, although two cable paths exist, messages can only travel in one direction.) Some WANs, most notably the Internet, employ mesh routing.

A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh. As shown in the illustration below, partial mesh networks also exist in which some devices connect only indirectly to others.
Topologies remain an important part of network design theory. You can probably build a home or small business computer network without understanding the difference between a bus design and a star design, but becoming familiar with the standard topologies gives you a better understanding of important networking concepts like hubs, broadcasts, and routes.

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Student Loan Consolidation

Student Loan Consolidation
Student loan consolidation is one of the most used methods for reducing and working off student debt. If you want to consolidate debt, whether it's a student loan debt or not, you have to follow a certain process. However, this process is easy to follow and will absolutely not require big efforts from your side.

Here is what you have to know about the consolidation process: You combine all of your various student loans into one large loan. Instead of paying toward all your loans each month, you make one payment towards this one loan. So, what will I gain with this, you may ask. If you compare the numbers before and after you have consolidated your student debt, you'll understand that it's a very good deal.

To start out the working career with an overwhelming amount of debt is a daunting prospect to put it mildly. But the fact is that many college graduates unfortunately are facing this situation. Fortunately consolidating your student loans is a great way to meet the challenge of getting rid of the burden of debt from school or college.

The main benefit of consolidation is that you'll normally pay a lower interest rate then compared to what your various loans are already set at. This works the same way as refinancing a home in order to have a lower mortgage payment. And be aware of the fact that the current interest rate is the lowest it has been in almost 40 years. When you do a consolidation you'll pay one interest rate, not several different rates. And at the time you took these loans, the rates were probably higher.

And this means money saved: A lower interest rate on a relatively big loan can save you thousands of dollars in the long run. And in addition to this, some lending companies offer rate reductions for students consolidating their loans while they are in their grace period. A warning though: Stay away from companies that require you to start your payment immediately after the grace period. There are financing companies out there that don't require this. Go to them!!!

And as if this wasn't enough, some companies even offer additional rate reductions. I have heard about companies that reduce your rate by one percent if you make all of your payments on time for two years. And this comes in addition to the discounts described above. One percent may seem small, but if you see it in a perspective of, let's say 20 years, which is a normal payback schedule, it can mean lots of dollars saved.

Another benefit with student debt consolidation is saving time and effort. It's much easier to handle one payment monthly than several separate payments.

A convenient way to do the monthly payments is to let the loan company deduct it directly from your bank account. Some companies allow that. And if it is a really good student loan consolidation, it will even give you a little interest rate reduction by handling your loan payments this way.

So, if you find that loan consolidation is (in) for you, your challenge is to decide which loan consolidation company to approach and finally select. What I would recommend is that you make a list of all the questions you might have, call a few companies and speak with their representatives. Or you can go online to find a good student loan consolidation company. There are some great companies out there.

Football Manager 2009

Popular Game strategy soccer like Football Manager (FM) trust significantly in the newest version, FM 2009. This scene is presented with the American game 3-dimensional pattern.
Later, the team's football game at FM 2009 will appear in 3 dimensions with a choice of various camera angles in the field. And for those who still want to play version 2 dimension, FM 2009 still presents options.
Other major enhancements is that more interaction between managers with the assistant manager. The assistants will be able to comment on the appearance of the players and whether the tactics that successfully prepared, at the time the match is still ongoing.
There's more gelontoran new features in FM 2009. Among them, the players can do a press conference with local or national media. As the manager can also relationships with journalists who want the ball

The FM programming team also improve the transfer system so that players feel more authentic and realistic.

there are spesifcation of Computer you need
OS: Windows XP or Vista
Processor: XP: 1.4GHz or Faster / Vista: 2.0GHz or Faster
Supported Processors: Intel Pentium 4, Intel Core, AMD Athlon
Memory: XP: 512MB RAM / Vista: 1.0GB RAM
Hard Drive Space: 2GB
DVD-Drive: 4x Speed
Video Card: 128MB *Supported Chipsets (see below)
Sound Card: DirectX 9.0c compatible
Directx: Version 9.0c (included)
LAN: TCP/IP compliant
Input: Keyboard, Mouse

Supported Chipsets Nvidia FX 5900 Ultra or greater; ATI Radeon 9800 or
greater; Intel 82915G/82910GL or greater.
Earlier cards may only display 2D Match Viewer Mode and are not supported.
Laptop versions of these chipsets may work but are not supported.

Download: (Size: 24x95.8MB +1x47.9MB)

Introducing Microsoft SQL Server 2008

Microsoft is offering Introducing SQL Server 2008 by Peter DeBetta for free. Learn about major new features in SQL Server 2008 including security, administration, and performance.

Quantum of Solace 2008 XviD

Quantum of Solace continues the high octane adventures of James Bond from 'Casino Royale'. Picking up literally days where the previous film left off, after being betrayed by Vesper, the woman he loved, 007 fights the urge to make his latest mission personal. Having captured Mr. White, and in pursuing his determination to uncover the truth, Bond and 'M' interrogate Mr. White who reveals the organisation which blackmailed Vesper to steal Bond's casino winnings is far more complex and dangerous than anyone had imagined.

Forensic intelligence links an MI6 traitor to a bank account in Haiti where a case of mistaken identity introduces Bond to the beautiful but feisty Camille, a woman who has her own vendetta. Camille leads Bond straight to Dominic Greene, a ruthless business man and major force within the mysterious criminal organisation known only as 'Quantum'.

On a mission that leads him to Austria, Italy and South America, Bond discovers that Greene, conspiring to take total control of one of the worlds most important natural resources, is forging a deal with the exiled General Medrano. Using his associates in the organisation, and manipulating his powerful contacts within the CIA and the British government, Greene promises to overthrow the existing regime in Bolivia, giving General Medrano control of the country in exchange for a seemingly barren piece of land which is, however, a main source of the South American water supply. In a minefield of treachery, murder and deceit, Bond allies with old friends in a battle to uncover the truth. As he gets closer to finding the man responsible for the betrayal of Vesper, 007 must keep one step ahead of the CIA, the terrorists, and even 'M' herself, to unravel Greene's sinister plan and stop Quantum from getting its way.
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BlogSolution V3.1.LSA

This is a cracked version,not dezended and thus ensuring 100% work
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Google AdSense For Dummies

Google AdSense For Dummies by Jerri L. Ledford (Author)
You can get paid for online ad placement with Google AdSense! If you’ve ever considered using AdSense to improve revenue for your Web site, Google AdSense For Dummies will get you started. It’s loaded with tips to help you implement a successful AdSense program.
AdSense lets you generate income with ad placement on blogs and Web sites. Google AdSense For Dummies shows you how AdSense works, how to analyze cost per click and track AdSense results, and how to earn money from your blog or Web site without selling a product.
Discover how to:
* Register and set up an AdSense program
* Track results with server logs, AdSense reports, and Google Analytics
* Boost AdSense income with search engine optimization techniques
* Apply Google guidelines by including relevant links and content, making your site easy to navigate, using a sitemap, and keeping links in good repair
* Fine-tune your Web site with beefed-up content to please Google and boost effectiveness
* Earn more with AdSense for RSS, streaming video, and referral units
* Design appealing ads and search boxes, and deal with ads from competitors
* Add video units to your site, design mobile ad units, and understand referral units

In Google AdSense For Dummies, author Jerri Ledford, a self-described “Google geek,” helps you make money with AdSense.

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Barack Obama : Dreams from My Father - A Story of Race and Inheritance

Free e-book Dreams from My Father Barack Obama

Elected the first black president of the Harvard Law Review, Obama was offered a book contract, but the intellectual journey he planned to recount became instead this poignant, probing memoir of an unusual life. Born in 1961 to a white American woman and a black Kenyan student, Obama was reared in Hawaii by his mother and her parents, his father having left for further study and a return home to Africa. So Obama's not-unhappy youth is nevertheless a lonely voyage to racial identity, tensions in school, struggling with black literature?with one month-long visit when he was 10 from his commanding father. After college, Obama became a community organizer in Chicago.

He slowly found place and purpose among folks of similar hue but different memory, winning enough small victories to commit himself to the work?he's now a civil rights lawyer there. Before going to law school, he finally visited Kenya; with his father dead, he still confronted obligation and loss, and found wellsprings of love and attachment.

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Tergila by Rocket Rocker

by Rocket Rockers

Pejamkan mata terulang kembali, tertulis keras hadirkan fantasi
Tak terasa berakhir disini, tiga tahun terindah takkan terulang lagi
Mencari hari pastikan dapatkan, satukan formasi yang jelas terdepan
Bulatkan tekad genggam erat tangan erat
Pastikan semua bahwa kita tergila...

Hempas semua beban hidupmu!'kan hadapi semua berani,
pastikan kita akan kembali...
Hempas semua beban hidupmu!'kan hadapi semua berani,
pastikan kita akan kembali...

Hempaskan segala rasa, bebaskan pagi
Temukan jawaban, teriakkan hati
Sudikan semua lelah mencari, hadirkan semua cerita yang telah pergi

Mencari hari pastikan dapatkan, satukan informasi yang jelas terdepan
Bulatkan tekad, genggam tangan erat
Pastikan semua bahwa kita tergila...
Hempas semua beban hidupmu!'kan hadapi semua berani
pastikan kita akan kembali...
Hempas semua beban hidupmu!'kan hadapi semua berani
pastikan kita akan kembali...

Putih abu takkan kembali...
Putih abu takkan kembali...

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Metallica - Death Magnetic

Free Download Metallica - Death Magnetic

Release Note
One of the most influential bands in music, ranked eighth on the list of the biggest-selling groups in history, Metallica unveils its ninth studio album, Death Magnetic. The band's first album in five years, Death Magnetic is also its first with renowned producer Rick Rubin (Danzig, Slayer, System Of A Down, Slipknot), first with bassist Robert Trujillo, and first on Warner Bros. Heavy and thrashy, unafraid to embrace the band's past yet move into the future.

Track List

01. That Was Just Your Life - 7:08
02. The End of the Line - 7:52
03. Broken, Beat & Scarred - 6:25
04. The Day That Never Comes - 7:56
05. All Nightmare Long - 7:57
06. Cyanide - 6:39
07. The Unforgiven III - 7:46
08. The Judas Kiss - 8:01
09. Suicide & Redemption - 9:57
10. My Apocalypse - 5:01

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Ink Waste Full Canon MP160

Ink Waste Full Canon MP160
How to clear E27 Waste ink absorber full

1.With the printer powered off but connected to a power source, press the Power
button while pressing and holding the Stop/ Reset button.
2.When the Power is lit, press the Stop/Reset button two times while pressing and
holding the Power button.
3.When releasing the Power button and the Stop / Reset button (regardless of order),
the printer will move into a service mode. (Waiting for menu selection)
4.When the on/off lights in green, press the Stop/Reset button the specified number
of time(s) according to the function listed in the table below.
(Each time the Stop/Reset button is pressed, the LED lights alternately in orange
and green, starting with orange.)

note: press 4 times for waste ink counter reset.
The number of the Reset button pressing LED Function Remarks
0 time Green Power off
1 time Orange Service pattern print (auto teste)
2 times Green EEPROM print (dados da EEPROM)
3 times Orange EEPROM reset (EEPROM reset)
4 times Green Waste ink counter reset (Absorvente reset)

5.Turn off the printer.( it must be turn off) then turn it on again
6. Good Luck !!!!!!

CSS Hacks and Filters: Making Cascading Stylesheets Work

CSS Hacks and Filters follows, roughly, an old-to-new, simple-to-complex structure. The oldest browsers CSS designers are still struggling with are covered first, followed by more up-to-date, standards-based browsers. Internet Explorer's proprietary conditional comment technology is important enough (given Internet Explorer's continued prevalence and CSS bugs) to deserve a chapter by itself. In all these early chapters, I tackled real-world CSS problems and explained how the hacks covered can solve them. Later chapters explore the intersection of CSS with other Web technologies such as JavaScript, the Document Object Model (DOM), and application servers.
- Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a method of describing how a Web page should look in a Web browser, but a growing number of browsers do not support CSS in the same way, forcing developers to constantly play catch-up to keep their sites consistent
- Bestselling author Joe Lowery eases the pain for those Web developers who aren't feeling the CSS love-he guides readers through real-world workarounds that will help a CSS-based site look and work the way it was meant to
- Readers will grit their teeth, clench their fists, and roll their eyes for the last time once they learn how to craft fluid multi-column layouts, build interactive navigation, fix the Box Model, implement CSS hacks in Dreamweaver, and more cool tricks

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Free Anti Virus For Windows

There are list of free Antivirus in You can try for your computer

1. Avira AntiVir PersonalEdition Classic
Protects your computer against dangerous viruses, worms, Trojans and costly dialers
2. AVG Free Edition
AVG Free provides you with basic antivirus and antispyware protection for Windows
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3. BitDefender Free Edition
BitDefender Free Edition is your chance to use one of the world's most effective antivirus engines for free!
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Another Anti Virus you can tried, simple fast and clean, and absolutelly free
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6. RemoveIT Pro
RemoveIT Pro removes many viruses that other popular antivirus software cannot discover. If you can't clean your computer from worms and viruses, adwares and spywares, then you should try with this software.
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7. My Free Antivirus
My Free Antivirus is a unique algorithm of scanning, high speed of detection, daily antivirus base updates, protection from cyber viruses, trojans, worms. Has an easy-to-use interface and a small size distributive that is however a powerful antivirus tool.
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8. ClamAV For Win or ClamWin
ClamWin is a Free Antivirus for Microsoft Windows. ClamWin Free Antivirus offers a easy installer and open source code. You may download and use it absolutely free
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9. Free Avast! Home Edition
avast! 4 Home Edition is a free complete ICSA certified antivirus software for home noncommercial use.
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10. Gucup Anti Virus (GAV)
An antivirus application that removes malware from your computer. If you want to scan very quick and fast your computer without installing.
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11. Rising Anti Virus
Easy to use, Active Defense technology, Patented Unknown Virus Scan and Clean technology and Patented Smartupdate technology make Rising Antivirus Free Edition install and forget product and entitles you to focus on your own jobs with your computer
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12. Geekz Virus Remover
Geekz Virus Remover will offer you the possibility to scan your computer and detect any form of malware. In addition you will be able to fix registry and change your computer's registered owner name
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Disable CMD by Administrator

Disable CMD by Administrator
If you see this Message: "The command prompt has been disabled by your administrator" when access cmd in the run menu you can try this method

Method 1:

Click Start -> Run and copy and paste this code

REG add HKCU \ Software \ Policies \ Microsoft \ Windows \ System / DisableCMD v / t REG_DWORD / d 0 / f

Method 2: Edit the registry


Open the Registry Editor (Regedit.exe) and Search:

[HKEY_CURRENT_USER \ Software \ Policies \ Microsoft \ Windows \ System]


Right on the Panel, double-click DisableCMD fox and the data to 0

Method 3: Using the Group Policy Editor in Windows XP Professional.

* Click Start, Run, type gpedit.msc and click OK.
* Navigate to User Configuration \ Administrative Templates \ System
* Prevent Double-click access to the command prompt

I hope that Tutorials is slightly beneficial for all